Vaccination Primer and COVID-19 Good News

Uploaded 4/14/2020, approx. 37 minute read

My name is Sam Vaknin, and I am the author of Malignant Self-Love, Narcissism Revisited, and now I'm drinking coffee. Of course, many of you will say that there is whiskey in the coffee, or that it is Irish cream, Baileys or something, but I swear it's coffee.

So, I owe you an apology, a series of apologies, actually. Very often there are glitches in my videos. I use the wrong acronyms or I mispronounce words, especially in medical phrases, medical terms.

And the reason is that when I studied medicine, I've studied medicine in four languages, Hebrew, German, French, and Russian. Russian because my teachers came from Soviet Russia. There were Jewish immigrants in the 70s. I was also very, very, very young. It was a very long time ago. I was a teenager.

So, in yesterday's video, I said that we test for the virus using CPR. And of course, it should have been PCR, polymerase chain reaction. But then I thought to myself, we need CPR, resuscitation, revival, much more than we need PCR. So, it came out well.

Yesterday, I was very flattered to receive an offer to be one of the heads, one of the chiefs of the resistance to the emerging New World Order. I also received an offer from a new group which wants to reintroduce the rotary phone. It's an anti 5G coalition.

So, I had to decline both offers, regrettably, because I had received much more lucrative offers from the Illuminati and from these Khazar elders of Zion. And both organizations, the Illuminati and the elders of Zion offered me a fast track career path. But of course, only after we get rid of all the whistleblowers, also known as conspiracies or conspiracy theories.

So, sorry, guys. I am going to side with those who pay me more. Can't help it.

Now, let's get to business.

It seems that the pandemic is abating and winding down. Many countries are taking steps to reverse the quarantine or start to abolish social distancing in several countries, including hard-hit Spain and Italy. Stores are being reopened. People are encouraged to go back to work.

In Germany, the National Academy of Sciences, known as Leopoldina, is calling to ease restrictions. And so did Robert Redfield, the chief of the CDC, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Spain is plateauing, and France is opening in four weeks.

If you go back to what remains of my videos on my channel, you will see that this is exactly as I had predicted.

I, at the time, used several epidemiological models. And exactly four weeks ago, I predicted that within three to four weeks the pandemic will abate and will plateau.

It has very little to do with quarantine and with social distancing, as any back of the envelope calculation can show.

Taking into account the incubation periods, the number of contacts, the transmissibility factors, the growth factors, the transmission parameters, and so on and so forth is easy, pretty easy to prove.

Additionally, if you look at a variety of countries, some of them implemented social distancing, some did not implement social distancing, yet in all countries the pandemic is plateauing identically and almost simultaneously.

So the National Institutes of Health finally has commissioned an antibody trial of 10,000 people. There are two shocking things about that.

First of all, that it took five months to commission a single double-blind clinical trial in a country where there are thousands of clinical trials taking place every year.

And the second shocking thing is that only 10,000 people are involved, instead of, shall we say, a million. 10,000 people is less than South Korea is testing in a single day.

It is also 30 percent of the other clinical trial that is taking place in that competing superpower, Spain.

It is inexplicable why the United States has waited until now to conduct a proper test and it is even less explicable.

Why only 10,000 people?

It is easy to show based on epidemiological models that 10,000 people, unless they are extremely carefully selected, are not a representative sample, especially since half of them, I mean there's a control group, so effectively it's 5,000 people.

In Seattle there were good news. Washington State emergency room doctor got sick with the coronavirus and almost died. His name is Dr. Ryan Paget. He was an emergency room doctor at Evergreen Health in Kirkland. He got sick with the coronavirus last month, but then he got an experimental treatment at Swedish hospital that's been used on about 40 patients there so far. And the drug he got is called Torsilizuma. I don't know where they're getting these names. The brand name is Actimran. It's currently Food and Drug Administration approved to treat rheumatoid arthritis, so it's an arthritis drug.

Doctors are trying everything. They're throwing the sink at this pandemic and several treatments are all being tried at the same time. So they can't say for certain if it is this, the Actimran did it, or something else because he received simultaneously many drugs. He was really in bad shape. They had to take over his lungs and they had to pump his blood into a kind of lung heart machine called ECMO, an ECMO machine. Blood is pumped out, oxygenated and then pumped back into the bloodstream. His kidneys were not working and so he was on dialysis as well.

Doctors say that some people who go the coronavirus, they suddenly take a turn for the worse. No one knows why, but most probably it has to do with what I've mentioned in one of my earlier videos, the cytokine storm. It seems that the virus enters the body, the body fights it off effectively, and then somehow no one knows how at this stage.

Probably some signaling molecule is being sent either by the virus or by the immune system.

No one knows exactly why. Suddenly, a huge stream of cytokines is released which provokes the immune system to go haywire and to attack the body itself.

The doctors started to see results in these particular patients four to five days after they began to administer the medicine.

Patrick came off the machines and now he was able to go home. It's wonderful news.

And so now there's a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of Tocilizuma and it should start probably on Monday.

Today I want to talk about vaccines. Vaccines are not inoculations.

Inoculation is something completely different. Inoculation is when you take live matter from one person who is infected, from a scab, from a blister, from a wound, take live matter and you inject it under the skin or into the muscle of another person. That's inoculation.

It was first used in smallpox in the 18th century. Cow smallpox blisters were pierced, material was taken from them and injected into a boy. There was a doctor called Jenner.

No one is doing this anymore. I mean no one is suggesting to try inoculation. It's very rare.

Today we have something called vaccines. Vaccination.

Now before I proceed, vaccinations are a very good thing. It's the best thing that happened in medicine, has happened in medicine.

Without vaccination many of us would have been dead by now. We succeeded to eradicate numerous diseases strictly with vaccination.

I'm gonna talk about the immune system response to vaccination and as usual in my videos I'm going to be totally honest with you. I'm going to present the good sides and the bad sides.

But in life there's always a calculus. Everything comes with a price, at a price you know. Even relationships. Everything is at a price and you always weigh the pros and cons and when you weigh the pros and cons in vaccines it's like a million to one. So let's start with the immune system. The immune system is like a precautious child with 190 IQ. Hint hint. This child needs to be educated about narcissists and psychopaths out there and how to defend against them.

These narcissists and psychopaths are viruses, bacteria and parasites.

So the immune system is like a very very bright child who knows nothing and needs to be taught.

And so we teach the immune system how to fight diseases via a process called vaccination

and there are several types of vaccines.

First there is the live attenuated vaccine. This is actually a weakened version of the virus. It's like a very exhausted virus.

The live attenuated vaccine, in live attenuated vaccine we inject a weakened virus into the body.

So this particular vaccine has to be refrigerated and cannot be administered to unhealthy people.

And there's also, honestly speaking, a risk that the weakened virus will recover and regain its virulence. A process called reversion. Regain its virulence and then the vaccine could simply become a disease and infect the person.

So vaccines need to be stored, maintained, refrigerated. These type of vaccines need to be, you know, the maintenance there is seriously, seriously serious. It has to be very thorough because we are dealing with weakened versions of real pathogens which can create a disease if they are mismanaged.

Then there is inactivated vaccines. Inactivated vaccines are dead. Dead microorganisms, dead bacteria, dead parasites or dead viruses.

Viruses, remember, are not microorganisms. Viruses are packages of genetic material, RNA and DNA. But they can also be activated.

How do we activate, how do we kill these pathogens, these agents of pathology, agents of disease? We destroy them with heat or with chemicals or with radiation. Then once we've done that, we freeze dry them. We freeze dry them and then we inject them to the body.

At this stage it seems that radiation is the most effective way of doing it because radiation is the only pathway towards eliciting a total immune response. In other words, when we inject inactivated vaccines created via heat or via chemicals, we receive a highly specific type of immune response. It's known as a B cell response. We'll talk about it a bit later.

But when the virus or the bacterium or the parasite was killed with radiation, for some reason we don't understand, the vaccine creates a total immune response. Both B cells and T cells are activated. More about B cells and T cells, a bit later, if you're patient.

Then there is a whole family of vaccines. They are known as subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, polysaccharide vaccines or conjugate vaccines. All these vaccines target pieces, pieces of the microorganism, pieces of the bacterium, subregions in the virus, areas of the parasite, and these subregions and areas and pieces, they're known as epitopes.

So these vaccines target epitopes, they target proteins, they target sugars, they target capsids. Capsids are the casings of the pathogen.

These particular vaccines are utterly safe. They don't have any side effects ever. The immune response is targeted at these parts.

So in activated vaccines, they're used with flu, they're used with polio, they're used with rabies and so on. These type of vaccines, the subunit vaccines, they're used with HPV, human papillomavirus, they're used with hepatitis B, and they're used with the type of influenza known as influenza B. And they don't have any side effects or any adverse reactions because it's not the entire microorganism that is put into the body, but a tiny part of it.

Because of that, they are not very effective.

In conjugate vaccines, we combine an antigen and a toxin and a polysaccharide from the outer coat of the bacterium or the outer coat of the virus.

Now the antigen is a site, is a place on the virus, on the bacterium, on the parasite that provokes the immune system to act.

So antigen, remember these terms, pathogen, which is the agent, the microorganism or the virus that creates a disease, I'm sorry, pathogen pathology. This antigen, it's something that creates anti-reaction in the immune system.

So in conjugates, we take an antigen and a toxin and some sugar from the outer coating of the pathogen.

And this way, we hope to provoke the immune system.

There's another type of vaccine, it's called a toxoid vaccine. It's we take the toxin because all these microorganisms, almost all, not all of them, but almost all these microorganisms secrete kind of poisons known as toxins.

So we take these toxins, we deactivate them with formulae. Formulae are kind of substance that is used for preservation in other settings, in zoology and so on. So we deactivate them with formulae and then we inject them.

And this is in the case of tetanus, diphtheria and similar diseases.

Now many of these vaccines, they inactivated vaccines, the subunit vaccines and the toxoid vaccines, they require booster shots.

Because the immune response is so weak, these vaccines are so weakened, the immune response is very weak, it wanes, it disappears after a while.

So we need to re-inject them again and again, every few years, every few months, in order to maintain the immune response.

There's an open question with the COVID-19, what will be the type of vaccine?

It seems that it will be the type of vaccine that will need to be re-injected every perhaps few months or every season like the flu or every two, three years.

It remains to be seen.

Another approach to vaccination which is not yet available to the public is DNA. DNA is the genetic material. It's an inexpensive type of vaccine, via injection. It forces the body cells actually to generate the antigen.

In other words, when you inject the DNA, body cells take the genetic material and they actually create a part of the bacterium, a part of the virus inside the body.

So it's like you're giving them the instructions, you're giving body cells, your own cells, the instructions how to generate that part of the microbe that provokes the immune system.

It's an interesting approach and now they're developing DNA vaccines for flu, for herpes.

And then the last type of vaccine, again not available to the public yet, is the recombinant vector or platform vaccine. This kind of vaccine actually imitates a totally natural infection in order to teach the immune system how to fight specific germs.

So it's an attenuated virus, an attenuated microbe, a weakened one, an exhausted one. And we take this virus and this microbe, we inject DNA, we inject genetic material into the virus or into the microbe, including the antigen, including the site that provokes the immune system.

So the virus or the microbe become like a package. And then we take this package and we put it into body cells.

So a harmless microbe, a harmless virus, they serve as transmission mechanisms. They serve as couriers to bring into the body the DNA or the antigen, which will in turn provoke the immune system.

Again, fascinating approach and now they're developing vaccines for HIV, AIDS, for rabies and for measles among others.

Now I want to talk a bit about how vaccines work. What do they do inside the body?

Now there's a lot of rank nonsense, inanity, and sheer ignorance among anti-vaxxers and similar conspiracy theories. It is very unfortunate that people who know nothing about medicine or virology or vaccinology and so on, pretend to be authorities on these topics and spew out complete misinformation and disinformation.

Again, such misinformation and disinformation should be flagged and public should be warned against these people and against what they are disseminating.

But I'm against suppression of free speech. I've seen my previous video about what YouTube did to me.

So there are two parts of the immune system. There's the innate immune system and then there's the general and adaptive immune system.

I'm sorry, there's the innate immune system, which is the general immune system and then there's the adaptive immune system.

The innate system is nonspecific. It's like the first line of defense. It identifies a pathogen when a microbacterium enters, virus enters, parasite enters.

This innate system goes haywire and exactly like an alarm at home. It cannot tell you what happened. It can just tell you there's an intrusion. It can tell you something is, someone is at home, but it cannot tell you if it's a burglar or if it's your mother in law.

And I'm not sure which of the two you would prefer.

So it's nonspecific. It targets molecular patterns and we are extremely lucky that all pathogens without exception have, usually on their kind of envelope, on their membrane, on their covering, on their coating, on their capsids. They have specific molecules arranged in highly specific ways. It's amazing. It's like a signature. It's like nature signed all the pathogens for us to identify.

So the innate system identifies these molecular patterns, but it has no memory. It identifies these patterns and immediately forgets.

It's like an Alzheimer patient, you know, it has a five minute or like a goldfish, three second memory. It has no memory.

The innate system is the north. Our skin is part of the immune system. Any place we have mucus, genitalia, mouth, nose is part of this innate general immune system.

Parameters like acidity collaborate or are part of this immune system.

The immune system encourages competition between bacteria inside the body, part of the flora, part of the microbiome. So the immune system encourages these bacteria which cohabit with us, our friends, their allies, they encourage them to compete with intruders from the outside.

And then parts of the immune, of this immune system trap, simply trapped physically, trap bacteria and viruses.

For example, the cilia, the hair, small hair in your nose, the cilia, some of the cilia in the lungs.

This immune system has numerous weapons in its arsenal. It uses fever. It increases the temperature of the body to disable bacterial and viral action mechanisms and replication. It has gastric acidity, which kills, you know, everything and everyone. The gastric acidity is equal, equal actually to HCL, the substance used until recently to clean the toilets.

It has, as I mentioned before, intestinal flora. And it has specialized enzymes like lysozymes. We'll talk about all these later.

Intiferons. Intiferons, for example, are a very interesting weapon. They are produced by cells which are already infected by a virus. So virus infects a cell, the cell suddenly creates interferon and releases it. And then the interferon released by the infected cell binds with other cells which are not infected yet.

Then there, and serves to protect them, as we will see a bit later.

Then there is interleukins. Interleukins communicate, these are molecules, in a way, signaling molecules. These are molecules that communicate. And when they communicate, they trigger inflammation.

Again, we'll discuss all these mechanisms shortly.

And then there are proteins known as colectins. They are in the lungs and they're very relevant for COVID-19. Colectins disrupt the lipid membranes of bacteria and viruses. And they interfere with the fatty elements in the membranes of these tiny creatures.

And what they do, they clump them together. They force the bacteria and the viruses to merge to become one big unit.

And this makes the viruses and the bacteria more susceptible to phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is a process whereby the immune system digests, in a way, eats bacteria and viruses.

But it's very difficult when the virus is tiny and the bacterium is small. It's very difficult to detect them. And it's even more difficult to eat them.

When you put all of them together, it's much easier.

Imagine if you had to eat meat molecule by molecule. You wouldn't get it very far.

But if all the molecules are put together and then put in the oven, you get a tasty dish.

So that's what colectins do. They make meals for the immune system.

The immune system works through a series of pathways. And there's quite a few of them. And they're known as the complement pathways.

First of all, one pathway is when the immune system attacks membranes, attacks the membranes of bacteria, attacks the membranes of viruses. Membranes are the weak spot of bacteria and viruses and parasites.

Why? Because on the membrane, there are molecules which provoke the immune system.

The membrane is like a message. Hello, I'm a bacterium. Hello, I'm a virus. Very unwise.

Additionally, membranes are made of sugars and lipids and fats, fatty molecules, which are easy to dismantle, for example, with water. Simple water can dismantle this.

So membranes are very dysfunctional firewalls, in a way.

And so the immune system of the body focuses on membranes in something called the membrane attack complex.

Another pathway is opsonization. Opsonization is when in ways which I will describe a bit later, the antigens, the sites on the bacteria and the viruses become much more susceptible, much more vulnerable to phagocytosis, to this digestion process that I described earlier.

And finally, there's, of course, the most famous pathway, which is inflammation.

You know, we can see inflammation becomes red, becomes hot. So localized inflammatory response is actually such a pathway.

Now, we have numerous types of antibodies. First of all, there are the antibodies that are usually tested for when you go to a lab, they test you for IGM and IGG. That's a partial list. Trust me, these are subclasses that bind to markers. And because they bind to markers and antigens very forcefully, they are used in laboratory testing.

Another type of antibodies in a way is called propidins. Propidins are triggered by proteins, which are deposited on the surfaces of bacteria and viruses. It's like the bacteria and virus travel through the bloodstream or through some tissue. And on the way they collect a lot of trash. It's like moving through a slimy tunnel.

So of course, the bacterium coating and the viral membrane, and I mean, they're all contaminated. And one of these contaminant is protein C3B. And so the propidins identify C3B and immediately, obviously spring to action.

Another type of antibody is lectin. Lectins identify another protein, which usually binds with microbes called MBL. So you see, there are any kind of antibodies.

Then we have antibodies is one class, one group of protective weapons. But we have many. The immune system is numerous protective. It's enormous arsenal.

You know, I'm an agnostic. I don't believe in God. No, to be more precise. I don't know if there's a God. I'm not an atheist, but I'm an agnostic.

But truly, when you look at the immune system, it's easy to develop religious consciousness. It is so intricate with so many thousands of interacting parts that it boggles the mind. It's true that evolution had five billion years to develop all this, but it still boggles the mind. Still boggles the mind.

So for example, there is pattern recognition receptors, PRRs. They are kind of rapid response teams, SWOT teams. They react to antigens. An antigen is found on a micro, on a virus. Remember, antigen is a site, a site that provokes the immune system and a site into which the immune system can latch onto, can bind with.

So there are these PRRs, the pattern recognition receptors, and they respond to antigens. The most famous PRR is C-reactive protein, CRP. It's tested very frequently in the laboratory because it predicts heart disease or problems with the heart.

And what they do, they recognize PAMPs, pathogen associated molecular patterns. You remember that I told you before that all pathogens have a kind of molecular signature, courtesy nature.

And so some of these patterns are known as peptidoglycans. They are combinations of peptides and sugars.

Then there's DNA. DNA is actually a molecular pattern, lipoproteins.

And all these PAMPs interact with the pattern recognition receptors. And the pattern recognition receptors instruct cells to release cytokines. Remember, these are already infected cells.

And PRR actually identify infected cells and push them to release cytokines. It's like, do a favor to the community before you die. They're telling these infected cells.

Another group of very useful, you know, food soldiers is the mononuclear mononuclear phagocytes. These are monocytes. And monocytes have a very, have a very interesting life cycle. Monocytes start in the blood.

So again, monocytes are a subgroup of phagocytes. You remember these creatures that eat bacteria and viruses for dinner?

So monocytes is a subclass of phagocytes.

So monocytes starts in the blood. And then a few hours later, usually eight hours later, they become macrophages in tissue and dendritic cells in other tissues. So they divide, they kind of transform. It's like they grow up and they become two different types of cells. And so we'll talk about their role a bit later.

So, granulocytic cells bridge between the innate and the adaptive immune system. We'll talk about the adaptive immune system.

Sure. You're beginning to see. Vaccination activates the innate general immune system.

And if the vaccine is really good, it activates the adaptive system. A vaccine is not very good, activates only the general system. A vaccine that's very good activates the adaptive system and creates effector cells, memory cells, and so on, which we will talk about it later.

But you are beginning to see vaccination is not such a simple topic. It interferes or it enters into one of the most intricate, if not the most intricate system in the human body.

Let's go back to dendritic cells. Remember, we mentioned it before. We said that monocytes become dendritic cells.

Dendritic cells, what they do is very interesting. They're like servers in a restaurant. They're like waiters in a restaurant. They spot the antigen. Then they present the antigen to other cells known as T helper cells. And so they push the antigen.

They present it in a minute. I'll describe how. They present it to T helper cells.

Another type of dendritic cells, known as follicular dendritic cells, they're inside the lymph. And what they do, they bind antigens to antibodies and they keep this combination, antigen, antibody inside the lymph nodes. They don't allow it to exit in order to generate memory, long-term memory. Again, I promise you, I'll explain all this a bit later.

Let's go back to dendritic cells. Remember, we mentioned it before. We said that monocytes become dendritic cells.

Dendritic cells, what they do is very interesting. They're like servers in a restaurant. They're like waiters in a restaurant. They spot the antigen. Then they present the antigen to other cells known as T helper cells. And so they push the antigen.

They present it in a minute. I'll describe how. They present it to T helper cells.

Another type of dendritic cells, known as follicular dendritic cells, they're inside the lymph. And what theymicrobes.

So, okay, that's a general survey of the general innate immune system.

What about the adaptive system? What's the difference between the adaptive system and the general system?

Remember, the general system has no memory. It's like a dementia patient. It comes across the same thing again and again, and every single time it reacts identically. It sends food soldiers, the food soldiers, bind with the microbes, first identify them, then bind with them, then send other molecules, peptides and nucleic acids, they send other molecules to inform other cells. They try to kill the microbe by engulfing it, by digesting it, but that's a first line of defense.

Problem with this, with the general system, it's not pathogen specific. It's not specific, for example, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2. Of course, the immune system in the body reacts, but it doesn't yet have specific cells to kill specifically SARS-CoV-2.

So, SARS-CoV-2 has the upper hand. That's where the adaptive immune system kicks in.

It has memory and it's mainly composed of three types of cells, B cells, B like baby, B cells, T cells, T like time and killer cells. All this complex is called humoral immunity and B cells, T cells and killer cells, they act usually extracellularly.

In other words, they act outside the cells to neutralize pathogens and toxins, but some of them react inside the cell.

We'll come to it in a minute.

Let's start with B cells.

B cells are generated, like many other parts of the immune system, in the bone marrow and then they migrate, they go into the lymph nodes. Inside the lymph nodes, B cells mature and it is there that they're exposed to pathogenic agents captured by the nodes.

Now, lymph nodes are amazing things. lymph nodes are like giant databases, gigantic, ginormous libraries of every bacterium and virus that had ever entered the body or that the body had ever been exposed to. There are copies of every antigen, every virus specification, it's like a library of specs for bacteria, viruses and parasites and all these copies, all this enormous library of information and there's no way to, it's like millions of times larger than the library of Congress.

All this enormous is inside this tiniest, almost invisible nodes, the lymph nodes.

And so when the B cells migrate to the lymph nodes, they go through college. There's a university there, they're being taught, they're being exposed, they're being introduced, they're being educated about the various bacteria and viruses.

Hello B cell. First year, freshman B cell. We're going to teach you about this bacteria, that bacteria, that bacteria. Senior, senior year B cell graduates to viruses.

So at the end of the process, these B cells are experts, world-class experts, even more than Dr. Fauci about viruses and bacteria.

And what B cells do? They recognize something called T-independent antigens. T-independent antigens are very large molecules and these molecules sit on the bacteria and on the viruses, on the outside.

And usually what happens is there is another cell called presenting cell and that presenting cell identifies the antigen, identify this large molecule on the microbe or on the virus. So there's a presenting cell that identifies the antigen and it whistles, it calls a T helper cell. T helper, come here for a minute, I found an antigen, the T helper cell comes and the presenting cell introduces the antigen to the T helper cell. And then the T helper cell calls a T cell and so it's a bloody mess. It's a very long process.

The B cell is able to recognize antigens without presenting cells and without T helpers.

Longest advantage because the reaction is instantaneous. When B cells are activated, they react immediately. Sometimes B cells are activated together with T helpers. It's not a bad thing because then both B cells and T cells can attack the virus or the bacteria.

And when the B cells are activated with T helpers, usually this leads to the release of cytokines. It's a stronger immune response. And also for reasons we are not entirely sure about, it generates longer term memory in the body.

When all of them work together, the memory is much longer.

Immunization, vaccination aims to achieve exactly this outcome. B cells, T helpers and T cells together, working together, creating long-term memory so that next time a virus or a bacterium or a parasite will enter the body, the long-term memory will be activated.

Within minutes it will be eliminated. B cells spend some time doing all this and then they mature and they become plasma cells. They produce antigen-specific antibodies starting with IgMs and ending with IgGs.

But there are others, other types of antibodies. There's IgD, IgA. IgA for example you can find in saliva, in breast milk. There's IgE which is responsible for allergy. We in vaccines use only IgG, not any of the others because it creates stronger memory and so on.

And so what happens is after the B cell has done its job, it goes on retirement. It goes on retirement, it clones itself, it creates a copy and it becomes a memory cell. It becomes part of the library, part of the library within the lymph node.

Now the antigen technically is a receptor, it's a protein and a site combined, it's a molecule, a molecule and a site combined. So this whole thing, this whole memory, this whole information is stored in a memory cell which used to be a B cell and that is like, you know, like an electronic file, like a digital file stored in the lymph nodes.

Cell-mediated immunity acts very well against intracellular pathogens.

Until now we've described what B cells do to bacteria and viruses outside the cell but there's also, for example, viruses infiltrating cells. So we need something to attack pathogens inside the cell, intracellularly.

So that's where T cells essentially come into the game. T cells mature into a gland called the thymus and it is then released from the thymus into the blood and there are two, basically two types of T cells, two families of T cells, shall we say.

The CD4, CD4 also known as T helper, which I mentioned before, and the CD8 and it sounds like the New World Order. So the CD4 and the CD8, so T cells have a limitation. They recognize only antigens, molecules connected with receptor sites. They recognize only antigens presented by antigen presenting or antigen processing cells. So they are cells that identify the antigen and present it or process it in some way, which I will describe, to the T cell.

A T cell can high-five a virus or high-five a bacterium and not realize that it's a bacterium or a virus. It's blind, deaf and dumb. It needs another cell, a presenting cell, a processing cell, to tell it, hey T cell, that's a virus, you high-fived, are you nuts? Do something about it.

So T cells, exactly like B cells, end up being cloned. They clone themselves, but they produce two types of cells. They produce effector T cells, fighters, warriors and memory T cells, part of the library.

Let's talk about CD4. CD4, which is a type of T cell, recognizes what we call the major histocompatibility complex, MHC. And there are two types of MHC. These are proteins. There are two types of MHC proteins, one and two, shockingly.

CD4 recognizes MCH type 2. MCH type 2 is found on all the immune cells. Every immune cell in the body of any kind has an MCH2 protein.

There are two types of MCH2 proteins, the TH1, they promote cell-mediated immunity and TH2 promote antibody-mediated immunity.

In other words, TH1 encourages the cell to fight via T cells and TH2 deals with antibody. This is the CD4 recognizes this type of MCH.

The CD8, also known as T-cytotoxic cell, they poison the viruses, they poison the bacteria literally with toxins. The CD8 recognize also the major histocompatibility complex, the MCH protein, but type 1.

Now, MCH type 1 is found on all other body cells.

Look how cleverly, a genius with 190 IQ designed this system.

This one type of cells, the CD4, they identify bad guys, they identify bacteria, they identify viruses. CD8 identify the good guys, the body's own cells.

So CD8, they tell the immune system, don't touch this cell, don't touch this nucleated body cell, because it has on its surface an MCH1 protein.

And CD4 says, let me see, no MCH1, MCH2, this must be a bacterium or a virus I'm going to attack.

Clever, clever, clever. It's very clever that not the same cell has both these functions.

We know it from systems design. Someone had to design these redundancies and so on, couldn't have done a better job.

There is really a feeling of design here.

In viral infections and in cancer, intracellular antigens and the MHC1, you remember MHC1 is a protein that identifies nucleated body cells, the cells of the host, the cells of the person himself.

So in viral infections and in cancer, the intracellular antigens, the molecules inside the cells, which are binding sites, and the MHC1 protein, they attach to the surface of antigen processing cells. So antigen processing cell comes, he identifies the intracellular inside the cell antigen, he identifies the protein on the cell, the MHC1.

So the MHC1 cell, the antigen processing cell says to herself, or to herself, might be a woman. So the antigen processing cell says to herself, wait a minute, there's MHC1 here, so it must be a body cell, but it has intracellular antigens, so probably it's infected or something.

And then with bacteria and parasites, it does the same with extracellular antigens and MHC2.

So what is immunization? What is vaccination?

First of all, let it be clear, we have all been vaccinated without a single injection. We are all being vaccinated throughout life by nature itself. There's something called passive immunization. It's when antibodies are transferred from an immune person to an unimmunized person.

The most famous example, which happened to absolutely every one of us, maternal antibodies are transferred via the placenta during pregnancy into the fetus. It's an example of vaccination.

And then if the person is lucky to be breastfed, breast milk contains many numerous antibodies transferred from the mother to the baby.

We also have artificial passive immunization, passive vaccination examples. For example, we inject human immune gamma globulin, we inject antivenience if you are unlucky enough to be beaten by a snake. These are types of vaccinations, short-term vaccinations.

But of course, anti-vaxxers are not talking about this, they're talking about active immunization.

Active immunization is when you inject a substance into the body to stimulate the immune system.

And so active immunization also can be natural. For example, when you're exposed to influenza, when you walk past a person and that person cuffs or sneezes, you inhale the droplets. You inhale the droplets with the droplets with the flu virus in each droplet.

When a person, when an infected person, when someone with the flu cuffs, they exhale, they eject, they spray tens of millions of tiny droplets. And in each droplet, a virus is trapped.

Actually, hundreds of viruses are trapped. And so when you inhale this droplet, typically with 100 units of virus, you are being vaccinated.

It's exactly like injection. The immune system recognizes epitopes, subregions. You remember epitopes? Subregions, sugars, proteins on antigens.

So there's a big, there's a virus, there's a bacterium, and there's an antigen site, binding site, or a molecule and so and there are subregions there. So these are called epitopes.

So the immune system recognizes epitopes.

Once it recognizes an epitope, once it recognizes the signature, molecular pattern, a polysaccharide protein, whatever, it oxygenizes or binds it, and then it engulfs it with antigen processing cells, macrophages or monocytes. And then these cells insert processed antigen with the MHC protein onto the surface of the antigen processing cells.

So first they engulf the suspected substance.

It's like, you know, when there's an abandoned suitcase in a train station, first you isolate, you know, push away everyone, then you engulf it with a robot, and then you blow it apart.

So it's exactly the same in the immune system.

They find something, the system finds something suspicious. It sends antigen processing cells.

See what's happening. What is it? Antigen processing cells say it's a suspect suitcase, it's abandoned.

So they then, they insert, they engulf the suitcase, the bacterium or the virus, they engulf it with the MHC protein that we mentioned before, and then they push all this into their own surface.

So the antigen processing cell engulfs the suspect material, and then it pushes it up so that the suspect material coats, coats the anti-processing cell. Then the anti-processing cell goes to T cells and says, look what I have on my coating. Something suspicious here.

And the T cells say, damn, that looks like a virus, or that looks like a bacterium more often. I'm going to attack.

The antigen processing cells sacrifice themselves. They digest the suspect material and then they put it on their external envelope so that immune system cells like T cells, CD8 in case of a virus, CD4 in case of bacteria, bacteria and parasites, T cells will then mobilize. MHC1 is typical if there's a virus, because the virus enters the cell.

Remember, MHC1 is a protein that is inside the cell. MHC2 is typical if there's a bacteria, bacterium or parasite, because it's external.

Bacteria and parasites do not infiltrate the cell, only viruses do. You see how beautifully it's designed, the complexity of it is mind-blowing.

There is the bomb dismantling and diffusing, diffusal unit. They go, they see this abandoned suitcase, this virus, this bacterium, they collect it, they digest it, they externalize it on their surface, and then they go to a policeman and say, policeman, T cell, they say, look, look at me, look at me, don't you see? There's something suspicious on me, attack, and the T cells mobilize and go on the attack, or B cells, if we're lucky.

So currently, vaccines are, you know, 100 years old, sub-vaccines are even much older, 150 years old. Louis Pasteur, the French doctor and scholar, I mean, all of you heard of him, Koch, others, but I mean, vaccines is one of the oldest branches of modern medicine, but still we are lacking many things.

For example, delivery systems of vaccines are not so good. Immune potentiators, such as cytokines, are not fully collaborative with vaccines. We need to teach them how to work with vaccines. And we call this entire field adjuvant.

So we're trying to study adjuvants of vaccines. Vaccines occur in nature, and vaccines occur in laboratories, and vaccines occur in the clinic. Are vaccines dangerous?

Well, the only class of potentially dangerous vaccines are the active attenuated vaccines, where there's actually a fully alive, fully functional pathogen injected into the body. It's very weakened, but in rare, extreme, very rare cases, it can become virulent and actually infect the person.

Happens, you know, super rarely. Vaccines have nothing to do with autism or any other phenomena in the body. They operate exclusively on the immune system, and we are not aware of any single connection between the immune system and autism. Vaccines are also not responsible for anything the anti-vaxxers say they are responsible for.

Anti-vaccine is one of the idiotic conspiracy theories out there. Should vaccines be universal? Well, it depends. For some diseases, yeah, they should be universal.

What about COVID-19? Bill Gates is advocating now universal vaccination. Should the vaccine be found for COVID-19 by September or October? I don't think it's wise.

I don't think it's wise for several reasons, not because I'm against vaccines. I'm all for vaccines. I repeat a second time. It's possibly the best thing that medicine has ever come up with.

I'm against because COVID-19 is a virus about which we know very close to nothing. And because the vaccine, should it be developed, needs to undergo very lengthy, extensive and thorough clinical trials.

This particular coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is not typical. It's not a typical coronavirus. There are some strange things about it. No one has any idea why. No one has any idea even about the mechanism of action.

We know, by now, we know the virus structurally pretty well, but we are absolutely very, very far off from understanding the action mechanisms of this particular virus.

As long as we don't understand the action mechanisms, first of all, a vaccine would be probably highly ineffective, akin to the flu vaccine, akin to the flu vaccine, which is highly ineffective vaccine. We have to reinvent it every season. And what's even worse, a vaccine could generate impacts and outcomes with effector cells in the immune system, in the adaptive immune system, which would be actually counterproductive.

This has happened in the only time we did try a vaccine for coronavirus with cats, felines. The cats that received the vaccine fell sick at a much higher rate than the cats that did not receive the vaccine. Possibly a far better approach is the antibody approach.

Simply take antibodies from the plasma of immune people and inject it to other people. That could be considerably safer.

But I think even this requires a bit of a further study.

So while I'm all for vaccination, and if the pandemic proves to be, if I'm proven wrong and the pandemic proves to be really a serious thing, then possibly universal vaccination.

But I'm dead set against what Bill Gates is suggesting, to vaccinate the minute the vaccine is available. We did this with Ebola, it worked.

But life is a Russian roulette. Life is a roulette, and we don't need to transform it into a Russian roulette.

Thank you for listening.

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